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独立主格结构介绍

    独立主格结构(Independent Genitive)由两部分组成,前一部份是名词或者代词,后一部分是非谓语动词(不定式、动名词和分词)或形容词、副词、或介词短语。前后两部分具有逻辑主谓关系。独立主格结构在句中做状语,多用于书面语。 独立主格结构本身不是句子,在句子中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、伴随、目的等。

独立主格结构主要用于描绘性文字中,其作用相当于一个状语从句,常用来表示时间、原因、条件、行为方式或伴随情况等。例如:
表示时间
The meeting being over, all of us went home. 开完会后我们都回家了。
Her work done, she sat down for a cup of tea. 她干完了活,坐下来喝茶。
表示条件
The condition being favourable, he may succeed. 若条件有利,他或许能成功。
表示原因
There being no taxis, we had to walk. 没有出租车,我们只好步行。
He wrapped her up with great care,the night being dark and frosty. 夜又黑又冷,所以他把她裹得严严实实的。
表示伴随情况
Almost all metals are good conductors,silver being the best of all. 几乎所有的金属都是良导体,而银则是最好的导体。(=Almost all metals are good conductors, and silver is the best of all.)

 

句型


一般独立主格形式
与主句逻辑关系松散
形式为: n. + -ed/-ing形式; n. +不定式; n. +介词短语; n. +形容词; n. +副词;


名词/主格代词+现在分词
名词/主格代词与现在分词之间是主动关系。

如:
The girl staring at him(= As the girl stared at him), he didn't know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。
Time permitting(= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow. 如果时间允许的话,我们明天去郊游。


名词/主格代词+过去分词
名词/主格代词与过去分词之间是被动关系。

如:
The problems solved(= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved. 随着问题的解决,质量已经提高了。
Her glasses broken(= Because her glasses were broken), she couldn't see the words on the blackboard. 由于眼镜摔坏了,她看不见黑板上的字。


名词/主格代词+不定式
名词/主格代词与不定式之间是主动关系,且强调的是一次具体性的动作。

如:
He is going to make a model plane,some old parts to help. 借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞机模型。
They said good-bye to each other,one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore. 他们道别后,一个回了家,一个去了书店。


名词/主格代词+形容词
如:
An air accident happened to the plane,nobody alive. 那架飞机遭遇了空难,无一人生还。
So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. 这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。


名词/主格代词+副词
如:
He put on his sweater ,wrong side out. 他把毛衣穿反了。
The meeting over, they all went home. 会议一结束,他们就都回家了。


名词/主格代词+介词短语
如:
The boy goes to the classroom,book in hand. 那男孩手里拿着书去教室。
Mary was sitting near the fire,her back towards the door.玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。


2>with 引导的独立主格:与主句逻辑关系紧密
形式为: with + n. + -ed/-ing形式; with + n. +adj.; with +n. +介词短语


3>each引导的强调型独立主格:强调句尾的复数名词
形式为:句子 +复数名词结尾 , each +介词短语/形容词短语/名词短语/-ing形式/-ed形式
如:
Under the restructuring, the huge organization that operates the company's basic businesses will be divided into five groups,each with its own executive.


4>其他形式
There being +名词(代词)
如:
There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。
There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。
It being +名词(代词)
如:
It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休息。
It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。

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